The History of Lactobacillus GG
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG®) is the most extensively studied probiotic strain.1 A naturally occurring, intestinal bacteria that produces health benefits, LGG® survives stomach acid and bile, adheres to human intestinal epithelial cells, and produces an antimicrobial substance6 making this probiotic strain an ideal probiotic for support of digestive and immune health. Since its identification in 1985 by Sherwood Gorbach and Barry Goldin, the probiotic features of LGG® have been recognized in over 1000 scientific studies, including over 200 human clinical trials, making LGG® the most clinically and scientifically studied probiotic strain in the world.5
LGG®: an ideal probiotic for digestive and immune support
LGG® at a glance
- The most studied probiotic2
- Evaluated in over 200 clinical studies
- One of the most practically-used probiotics6, 7
- Consumed in over 40 countries worldwide
- Over 30 years of real-world experience
- Efficacy and safety established in multiple trials in adults, children, and infants6, 8-13
- LGG® has proven digestive and immune benefits8-13
- No serious adverse events reported in a wide range of clinical trials6
Key attributes of an ideal probiotic6
LGG® meets all the requirements of an ideal probiotic. It is proven to be safe and effective for patients of all ages and is supported by over 200 peer-reviewed studies.2, 6, 8-13
Learn more about the efficacy of LGG®
LGG® Success in the Medical Community
Authoritative medical societies have endorsed the use of LGG® for:
- Management of acute gastroenteritis14
- Prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in children15
- Prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal conditions in children16
- Prevention of infections in children attending day care17
- Relief of abdominal pain-related gastrointestinal disorders in childhood18
- Prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea in children and adults19
How LGG® works
Probiotics like LGG® are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host6. LGG® promotes the balance of the intestinal microbiota to provide digestive assistance and immune support6.
LGG® exerts its effects by:20
- Competitively binding to sites where pathogens could
- Influencing aspects of the epithelial barrier function
- Blocking proinflammatory molecules
- Directly releasing antimicrobial substances
All of this activity contributes to the strength of the epithelial barrier, which in turn provides a defense against potential toxins, pathogens, and inflammatory responses.20
The gut microbiota and why it matters
Microbiota are communities of microorganisms that reside within the human body. These communities are composed of bacteria and fungi, among other microorganisms. Working with the immune system, the microbiota plays a critical role in protecting the host from colonization by pathogenic species. And, as part of the gastrointestinal system, gut microbiota aid with metabolism, the proliferation of intestinal endothelial cells, and vitamin synthesis.21, 22 Emerging science has also elucidated the “gut-brain axis,” whereby the microbiota is thought to influence psychological, behavioral, and cognitive functions.23
Roles of the gut microbiota21-23
Disturbances of the gut microbiota have the potential to lead to disease
The micobiota is a delicate ecosystem. Many external factors can disturb the balance, leading to pathogenic invasion, inflammatory responses, and ultimately, disease. For example, antibiotics can kill beneficial bacteria, making hosts vulnerable to pathogenic bacteria, such clostridium.
Disturbances of the microbiota can also lead to inappropriate inflammatory responses. Research has shown that these disturbances may be a cause of irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, and other gastrointestinal disorders.22, 24
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Data on File. i-Health Inc, Cromwell, CT.
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Davidson LE, Fiorino AM, Snydman DR, Hibberd PL. Lactobacillus GG as an immune adjuvant for live-attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(4):501-507.
Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Ann Med. 1990;22(1):57-59.
Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.J Pediatr. 1999;135:564-568.
Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al: Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000 30(1):54–60.
Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Arvilommi H, Isolauri E. Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: a cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(4):1019-1021.
Berni Canani R, Nocerino R, Terrin G, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG on tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy: a randomized trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(2):580-602.
Szajewska H, Guarino, A, Hojsak I, et al: Use of Probiotics for Management of Acute Gastroenteritis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2014;58(4):531-539.
Hojsak I, Szajewska H, Canani R et al: Probiotics for the Prevention of Nosocomial Diarrhea in Children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. [doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001637][Epub ahead of print].
Cruchet S, Furnes R, Maruy A, et al: The Use of Probiotics in Pediatric Gastroenterology: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations by Latin-American Experts. Paediatr Drugs. 2015; 17(3): 199–216.
Hojsak I, Snovak N, Abdovic S, Szajewska H, MiÅ¡ak Z, Kolacˇ ek S. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2010;29(3):312-316.
Horvath A1, Dziechciarz P, Szajewska H. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in childhood. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 33(12):1302-10.
Szajewska, H. & Kolodziej, M. Aliment. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children and adults. Pharmacol Ther. 2015 42(10)1149-57.
Gogineni VK, Morrow LE, Malesker MA. Probiotics: mechanisms of action and clinical applications. J Prob Health. 2013;1 (1):1-11.
Jandhyala SM, Talukdar R, Subramanyam C, et al. Role of the normal gut microbiota. World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(29):8787-8803.
Quigley EM. Gut bacteria in health and disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;9(9):560-569.
Carabottia M, Sciroccoa A, Masellib MA, Severia C The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems. Annals of Gastroenterology. 2015;28:203-209.
Belkaid Y. Hand T. Role of the Microbiota in Immunity and inflammation. Cell. 2014;157(1):121–141.