Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG®): the ideal probiotic for adults

LGG® has been proven to have digestive and immune benefits in multiple clinical trials

Strong enough to survive stomach acids and form a barrier against non-beneficial bacteria, while colonizing in the intestines, LGG® is clinically proven to foster the growth of additional beneficial bacteria.1-2 Delivering both digestive and immune benefits, LGG® is a human derived probiotic strain and is well-established to be both safe and effective in adults.3-10  

Digestive Studies

Numerous studies have shown that supplementation with LGG® offers a host of gastrointestinal benefits. Clinical data indicates LGG® reduces the incidence and duration of diarrhea resulting from dysbiosis due to viral and bacterial intestinal infections,4-5  travel to foreign countries 11-12 and side effects of antibiotics.13-19

Impact of antibiotics on microbiota

Antibiotics kill may infection-causing bacteria, but also disturb the balance of the gut microbiota, potentially allowing certain pathogenic bacteria to become overactive while impeding the function of beneficial microorganisms in the intestines.18-19 Uncomfortable side effects stemming from the imbalance can lead some patients to discontinue their antibiotic regimen, resulting in a high risk of treatment failure and contributing the development of antibiotic resistance.20 

Impact of certain classes of antibiotics on the normal intestinal microbiota

Commonly prescribed antibiotics can heavily impact the abundance and diversity of normal intestinal bacteria and promote the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria.21,22

{CMS alt text}

Lactobacillus GG reduced the incidence and duration of diarrhea resulting from antibiotics

Multiple clinical trails have demonstrated the efficacy of Lactobacillus GG (all at 12 billion CFU/d) in reducing the incidence and severity of antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). By competing with pathogens for resources and binding sites on the intestinal mucosa to form a protective barrier and produce an antibacterial substance that protects against pathogens, Lactobacillus GG  improves the treatment tolerability by reducing several side effects and duration.13-16

Lactobacillus GG helps reduce the incidence of diarrhea during triple antibiotic therapy

LGG® improves antibiotic treatment tolerability by reducing several side effects associated with triple antibiotic regimens, including diarrhea.13-15

{CMS alt text}

Lactobacillus GG Reduces the duration of diarrhea during Erythromycin treatment

Clinical studies have found supplementation of LGG® to reduce the duration of diarrhea associated with Erythromycin.4

{CMS alt text}

Lactobacillus GG may help reduce inflammation

Inflammation associated with metabolic disease is also related to LPS-induced changes to the gut microbiota. Lactobacillus GG has been shown to lower serum CRP levels in healthy adults, highlighting its potential for reducing postprandial inflammation.23

Immune Studies

Lactobacillus GG has the potential to improve immune response

Lactobacillus GG supplementation’s support of natural defenses and overall health has been demonstrated in dozens of clinical trials involving thousands of healthy participants. From promoting upper respiratory health to improving a patient’s response to the influenza vaccine, to helping to modulate allergic responses, the benefits of Lactobacillus GG have been linked to a battery of positive outcomes.

Lactobacillus GG improves influenza vaccine response

Lactobacillus GG behaves as an adjuvant to improve influenza vaccine immunogenicity. Studies found LGG® administration to increase seroprotection for H3N2.3

{CMS alt text}

Lactobacillus GG modulates nonspecific immune responses to allergens

Hypersensitivity reactions, or allergies, occur within minutes of exposure to a challenging antigen. Serious systemic reactions, or anaphylaxis, can be life threatening. Studies indicate Lactobacillus GG has an immunostimulating effect on the oral mucosa, which can positively modulate a patient’s immune response.

The expression of phagocytic receptors on neutrophils and monocytes was compared prior to and after a milk challenge.  While milk significantly increased the expression of certain phagocytic receptors in milk-hypersensitive individuals, the addition of Lactobacillus GG attenuated this increased and ultimately the inflammatory response.24  However, Lactobacillus GG had the opposite effect in healthy participants where the phagocytic progress increased and receptor expression was up-regulated.

{CMS alt text}
    • Gogineni VK, Lee E Morrow and Mark,A.Malesker. Probiotics: Mechanisms of action and clinical application. Journal of Probiotics & Health. 2013(1):1-11.
    • Segers ME, Lebeer S. Towards a better understanding of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG - host interactions. Microbial Cell Factories. 2014;13(Suppl 1):S7-S23.
    • Davidson LE, Fiorino AM, Snydman DR, Hibberd PL. Lactobacillus GG as an immune adjuvant for live-attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(4):501-507.
    • Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Ann Med. 1990;22(1):57-59.
    • Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr. 1999;135:564-568.
    • Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Arvilommi H, Isolauri E. Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: a cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(4):1019-1021.
    • Berni Canani R, Nocerino R, Terrin G, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG on tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy: a randomized trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(2):580-602.
    • Salminen MK, Tynkkynen S, Rautelin H, et al. Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in probiotic use of lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in finland. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(10):1155-1160.
    • Luoto R, Laitinen K, Nermes M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(12):1792-1799.
    • Salminen MK, Tynkkynen S, Rautelin H, et al. The efficacy and safety of probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on prolonged, noninfectious diarrhea in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. HIV Clin Trials. 2004;5(4):183-191.
    • Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Singer C, Smith M. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrheal preventive in travelers. J Travel Med. 1997;4(1):41-43.
    • Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, et al. Prevention of Travellers’ diarrhoea by lactobacillus GG. Ann Med. 1990;22(1):53-56.
    • Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Ojetti V, et al. Effect of lactobacillus GG supplementation on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects during helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A pilot study. Digestion.2001;63(1):1-7.
    • Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F, et al. The effect of oral administration of lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15(2):163-169.
    • Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, et al. Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: A parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(11):2744-2749.
    • Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Santarelli L, et al. Probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Dig Liver Dis. 2002;34(SUPPL. 2):S78-S80.
    • Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Ann Med. 1990;22(1):57-59.
    • Videlock EJ, Cremonini F. Meta-analysis: Probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(12):1355-1369.
    • Rodgers B, Kirley K, Mounsey A. PURLs: Prescribing an antibiotic? pair it with probiotics. J Fam Pract. 2013;62(3):148-150.
    • McFarland LV. Use of probiotics to correct dysbiosis of normal microbiota following disease or disruptive events: A systematic review. BMJ Open. 2014;4(8):e005047-2014-005047.
    • Jernberg C, Lofmark S, Edlund C, Jansson JK. Long-term impacts of antibiotic exposure on the human intestinal microbiota. Microbiology. 2010;156(Pt 11):3216-3223.
    • Panda S, El khader I, Casellas F, et al. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e95476.
    • Kekkonen R, Lummela N, Karjalainen H, Latvlal S, Tynkkynen S, Jarvenpaa S, Kautiainen H, Julkunen I, Vapaatalo H, Korpela R.  Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults.  World Gastroenterol. 2008;14(13):2029-36.
    • Pelto L, Isolauri E, Lillus E, Nuutila J, Salminen S. Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clin Exp Allergy. 1998;28(12):1474-1479.